Life Extension

Monday 24th February 2014

Life Expectancy

My health regime is a wake-up call to my baby-boomer peers, most of whom are accepting the normal cycle of life and accepting they are getting to the end of their productive years. That’s not my view. Now that health and medicine is in information technology it is going to expand exponentially. We will see very dramatic changes ahead.

According to my model it’s only 10-15 years away from where we’ll be adding more than a year every year to life expectancy because of progress. It’s kind of a tipping point in longevity. – Ray Kurzweil


Sunday 11th May 2014

Is the goal to solve problems or to try to solve problems?

Ex: healthcare vs life extension, higher ed v direct brain/machine interface.

Many examples like this can be given. A new technology that is ambitious, but if achieved completely obviates much of what is being done.

The tech in these areas is often way beyond where the public perceives; eg recent life extension results are very promising. – Balaji S. Srinivasan, Andreessen Horowitz


Monday 14th July 2014

Linear vs. Exponential Thinking

I’m currently 17 do you think I will see things such as life extension due the the eradication or management of Cancer, dementia, 3D organ printing etc within my lifetime? What are some technologies that seem way off to your average person that may become a reality within the next decade?


If you’re only 17, you will see a hell of a lot more than just life extension! You’re going to see colonies on Mars. You’re going to see us turn most everything we think of as science fiction today into science fact. We’re living during a time of accelerating change. Don’t think with your linear mind! Yes, we will solve cancer. Yes, we will solve dementia. Yes, we will start regrowing organs. All of this will happen faster than you can imagine.

I think the average person is a linear thinker and most of the extraordinary breakthroughs that will happen this decade will initially seem far off. Then, when the breakthroughs occur, they will take them for granted. So just think about artificial intelligence becoming your physician, or artificial intelligence becoming your personal tutor better than the best Harvard professor, or 3-D printing organs, or extending the human lifespan 30 years, or landing the first private citizens on Mars with in the next 15 years. These things all sound crazy until we make them happen – Peter Diamandis, Co-founder of Singularity University

30 steps linearly gets you to 30…30 steps exponentially gets you to a billion – Ray Kurzweil


Tuesday 22nd July 2014

Life Expectancy

Human longevity is going to grow very rapidly. In the past 60 years in developed countries, the lifespan has been increasing about 1 year every 4, so people live 15 years longer and healthy than they did in 1940. I expect that this will keep going on or accelerate.

One reason to be optimistic is that we live twice as long as chimpanzees. They live about 40 years, we live about 80 years and it’s been only about 4 or 5 million years, not many genes have changed, so it could be that you can double the lifespan by just changing a few genes, and I expect that we’ll discover what those are pretty soon – Marvin Minsky, “The Father of AI”


Thursday 7th August 2014

Life Expectancy

Within the next three decades, Aubrey de Grey believes there’s a 50/50 chance we’ll have marshaled the necessary therapies to add 30 years to life expectancy.

As a natural byproduct of these enabling technologies, those extra years ought to be healthier and more active. And that will only be the beginning. Those who live 30 more years will be alive to see additional advances add more years, and so on. The best we can do is keep our eyes on the prize. And for de Grey, the prize is clear, “I don’t want us to go on dying the way we always have.” – Jason Dorrier


Thursday 28th August 2014

Life Expectancy

Today, the average 70 year old is about as healthy as an average 50 year old was in 1950 – Aubrey de Grey


Monday 8th September 2014

Mexican Woman becomes Oldest Person who Ever Lived at 127

Leandra Becerra Lumbreras was said to have been born on August 31, 1887 – the year Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee. The birthday girl’s secret to a long life is eating well, sleeping for days on end and never getting married, according to her family – Matt Roper


Saturday 18th January 2015

“If your business and social world is oriented around the premise of “disruptive technologies”, what could be more disruptive than slowing down or “defeating” ageing?” – Patrick McCray

“The first person who will live to 1,000 years is probably already alive.” – Aubrey de Grey

“There is an increasing number of people realising that the concept of anti-ageing medicine that actually works is going to be the biggest industry that ever existed by some huge margin and that it just might be foreseeable.” – Aubrey de Grey


Saturday 18th January 2015

The world is in a “pro-ageing trance”

Peter Thiel, 47, PayPal co-founder and Facebook’s first investor, recently told Bloomberg Television he took human growth hormone (HGH) as part of his regime to reach 120. He also follows a Paleo diet,doesn’t eat sugar, drinks red wine and runs regularly. He has given more than $6m to Aubrey de Grey’s Sens Foundation, dedicated to extending the human lifespan. In a recent interview he identified three main ways to approach death. “You can accept it, you can deny it or you can fight it. I think our society is dominated by people who are into denial or acceptance, and I prefer to fight it.”

In an office not far from Google’s headquarters in Mountain View, with a beard reaching almost to his navel, Aubrey de Grey is enjoying the new buzz about defeating ageing. For more than a decade, he has been on a crusade to inspire the world to embark on a scientific quest to eliminate ageing and extend healthy lifespan indefinitely (he is on the Palo Alto Longevity Prize board).

It is a difficult job because he considers the world to be in a “pro-ageing trance”, happy to accept that ageing is unavoidable, when the reality is that it’s simply a “medical problem” that science can solve. Just as a vintage car can be kept in good condition indefinitely with periodic preventative maintenance, so there is no reason why, in principle, the same can’t be true of the human body, thinks de Grey. We are, after all, biological machines, he says – Zoe Corbyn


Wednesday 11th February 2015

Peter Thiel hasn’t made his peace with death, or what he calls “the ideology of the inevitability of the death of every individual.”

For millions of people, Thiel believes, accepting mortality really means ignoring it—the complacency of the mob.

He sees death as a problem to be solved, and the sooner the better. Given the current state of medical research, he expects to live to a hundred and twenty—a sorry compromise, given the grand possibilities of life extension – George Packer


Wednesday 18th March 2015

Death And Taxes

In 1800 there was no country with a life expectancy over 40. – Max Roser

Because everyone has always died, we live under the “death and taxes” assumption that death is inevitable. We think of aging like time—both keep moving and there’s nothing you can do to stop them.But that assumption is wrong. Richard Feynman writes:

It is one of the most remarkable things that in all of the biological sciences there is no clue as to the necessity of death. If you say we want to make perpetual motion, we have discovered enough laws as we studied physics to see that it is either absolutely impossible or else the laws are wrong. But there is nothing in biology yet found that indicates the inevitability of death.

This suggests to me that it is not at all inevitable and that it is only a matter of time before the biologists discover what it is that is causing us the trouble and that this terrible universal disease or temporariness of the human’s body will be cured.

The fact is, aging isn’t stuck to time. Time will continue moving, but aging doesn’t have to. If you think about it, it makes sense. All aging is is the physical materials of the body wearing down. A car wears down over time too—but is its aging inevitable? If you perfectly repaired or replaced a car’s parts whenever one of them began to wear down, the car would run forever. The human body isn’t any different—just far more complex.

If we ever do cure death, the aging of humanity’s past will seem like this great tragedy that happened, which killed every single human until it was fixed – Tim Urban


Monday 13th April 2015

Living Indefinitely is Feasible

Scott Menor: It’s at least possible to live indefinitely and continue adapting. The commonality I see is a reality disconnect.

Balaji S. Srinivasan: Well, if it is feasible…those who dismiss are the ones disconnected from reality:)(When Was the Famous New York Times Editorial About Dr. Goddard?)

Scott Menor: To put a finer point on that – Goddard laid out a detailed map and got there. Most people are closer to Verne territory

Balaji S. Srinivasan: Actually, Aubrey de Grey published a reasonable roadmap 10+ years ago (Escape Velocity: Why the Prospect of Extreme Human Life Extension Matters Now).

Balaji S. Srinivasan: And there are many, many papers in this broad area now with real results, eg New Studies Show that Young Blood Reverses the Effects of Aging When Put Into Older Mice

Balaji S. Srinivasan: Life extension also like Bitcoin in that those who don’t understand the tech tend to be most hostile

Scott Menor: Funny you should mention Aubry (though not surprising) because he was specifically one of the people I had in mind..

Balaji S. Srinivasan: Shrug. De Grey was out there early & taking the hits, with concrete proposals. Respect due for moving the conversation.


Monday 20th April 2015

Breakfast with the FT: Ray Kurzweil

There is a bowl of berries; a plate with smoked salmon and mackerel; six pieces of dark chocolate; a carton of vanilla WestSoy milk, a pile of Stevia sachets, and a bowl of tepid, dense porridge.

“Cocoa is anti-inflammatory and it’s very good for you. So that’s very dark chocolate with some espresso in. Berries, soy milk, unsweetened. Fish and green tea,” he says, pointing out each item. He eats almost no meat, is pescatarian and favours “healthy carbs and healthy fats. So a healthy carb is a little bit of berries, oatmeal, vegetables.”

As his hand hovers over the berries, I tell him I am disappointed not to see his bag of pills. He used to take up to 250 a day; now it is 100. “I’ve found more bio-available forms. So instead of taking 10 pills I can take two.” He has already taken his morning intake of 30 pills (he later shows me a typical bag of them), including ones for “heart health, eye health, sexual health and brain health”.

I ask how much this regime costs. “It’s a few thousand dollars a year. But it’s not one size fits all. A healthy 30-year-old might just need basic supplements”

Though the 67-year-old Kurzweil looks fresh-faced (he uses antioxidant skin cream daily), he is ageing, even if his “biological age comes out in the late forties. It hasn’t moved that much.”

But this is peanuts compared with Kurzweil’s ultimate goal: to live for ever. That means staying healthy enough to get to what he dubs “Bridge Two, when the biotechnology revolution will reprogramme our inherited biology”, and “Bridge Three”: molecular nanotechnology enabling us to rebuild our bodies.

If medical progress might once have been a hit and miss affair, he argues that we are now starting to understand “the software of life”. Data from the Human Genome Project will enable exponential, not incremental, progress. “Over the next 20, 25 years, we’re going to overcome almost all disease and ageing.” – Caroline Daniel


Monday 27th April 2015

The Severity of the Problem We Have Today

How many people die of aging every day? The answer is 100,000

And most of these people don’t just die. They die after a long period of disease, debilitation, dependency and general misery.

So there is no question that aging is responsible for the vast majority of human suffering in the world today – Aubrey de Grey


Monday 27th April 2015

Mr. De Grey, Have You Ever Met Mr. Ray Kurzweil? Do You Share Similar Views on the Future?

I know him well, sure – we are mostly on the same page. We differ somewhat concerning the short term possibilities (he is more optimistic) but we are very closely aligned concerning his Bridges 2 and 3 – Aubrey de Grey


Monday 11th May 2015

AI and Life Extension

Matt Schlicht: Are you completely focused on the bitcoin industry or are there other industries you are active in?

Roger Ver: In the future I plan to focus on AI and human life extension technologies.

Robert Kuhne: It’s good to hear that you are planning to invest in AI and life extension technologies, so to what extent do you agree with the “Singularity” hypothesis of Ray Kurzweil?

Roger Ver: I read all of Kurzweil’s books and was influenced by them. At the end of the day, I don’t know what is going to happen, but I intend to stay alive to find out. Interestingly enough, recently I was able to meet Ray’s son, Ethan Kurzweil, who works at a VC firm that is interested in investing in the Bitcoin space.


Friday 28th August 2015

Radical Life Extension

The general public don’t want to think about it. Quite a lot of scientists don’t want to think about it.

They don’t want to get their hopes up. They really don’t want to reengage a psychological battle that they have already lost, that they have already submitted to.

They have already made their peace with ageing and the inevitability of declining health, old-age and eventual death; getting into a mode of thinking where maybe science will come along and prevent that from happening or maybe it wont, that’s a mindset that disturbs a lot of people; that’s a mindset a lot of people would prefer not to even engage in, if the alternative is to continue to believe that the whole thing is science-fiction. It’s fatalistic but it’s calming.

It’s quite depressing to me. All of the stupid things that people say, like, “Where would we put all the people?” or, “How would we pay the pensions?” or, “Is it only for the rich?” or, “Wont dictators live forever?” and so on, all of these things… it’s just painful.

It’s extraordinarily frustrating that people are so wedded to the process of putting this out of their minds, by however embarrassing their means; coming up with the most pathetic arguments, immediately switching their brains off before realising their arguments might indeed be pathetic. –Aubrey de Grey


In Ten Years How Will Technological Advancements Enable Radical Life Extension?

I think that in the next 10 years we’re likely to hit a tipping point that I have historically called “robust mouse-rejuvenation”. I think it’s more like 6-8 years at this point, to be honest.

I believe that we’re going to reach a point where we have mice in the laboratory and we extend their lives by a sufficient magnitude and by appropriate means, so the scientific community will begin to believe strongly that we’ve cracked this; that it’s only a matter of time before we bring ageing under comprehensive medical control for human beings as well.

Once the scientific community, the acknowledged, expert, credentialed scientific community, has a consensus, that’s when my job will be done, because literally the following day Oprah Winfrey will be saying, “Well, if it’s possible and it’s only a matter of time then let’s make it as little time as possible”. Then, the day after that, it will be impossible to get elected unless you have a manifesto commitment to actually have a war on ageing, right now. – Aubrey de Grey


Saturday 12th December 2015

Omniya Clinic, London

As technology evolves ever more rapidly, ultra high net worth individuals are turning their attention inward, investigating how to stall the ageing process, and spending serious money to load their dice against death.

‘I wanted to create a place that brings the newest advancements in medical and regenerative health to London,’ says co-founder Danyal Kader. He was so depressed by the difficulty of finding the best medical treatment for his father, who suffers from a heart condition, that he decided to create his own one-stop conduit to wellness.

To this end, he has brought together a team of leading specialists who analyse the health of their clients in the most minute and sophisticated detail — a kind of space-age human MOT.


One of these is cellular ageing specialist Dr Mark Bonar. As his title suggests, Bonar is passionate about the very specific degradations that happen in the cells of the body as we age — and still more excited about the new ways he can use to slow such deterioration. Consider, for example, telomeres.

Telomeres are, however, only one part of the therapy. If you suffer from low energy, Bonar might look to the functioning of your mitochondria — the cell powerhouses that produce energy; or glycation, typically the result of sugar molecules bonding to protein, which makes your blood more ‘gloopy’ and your cells more brittle and liable to break down.

He might also consider using artificial means, such as the Human Growth Hormone (HGH), to stimulate cell reproduction. HGH usually peaks in our twenties and then declines; as well as making you feel like you’ve only just turned 21, it will also give you better hair, skin, nails and tremendous energy.

All these developments are just the beginning. With Google running Calico (the California Life Company), focusing on health, wellbeing and longevity, and hedge funder Joon Yun offering $1 million to anyone who can ‘hack the code of life’ (‘restore the homeostatic capacity of an ageing reference mammal to that of a young adult’ — ie, stop us from getting old), the fountain of youth might soon start flowing for real. – Rebecca Newman


Tuesday 29th March 2016

Ageing Research Picks Up Speed

It’s an exciting time to be working in ageing research. New findings are coming thick and fast, and although eliminating the process in humans is still some way away, studies regularly confirm what some have suspected for decades: that the mechanisms of ageing can be treated.

“It’s an amazingly gratifying field to be part of,” says biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey, chief science officer and founder of SENS Research Foundation, the leading organisation tackling ageing. “It moves on almost every week at the moment.”

At the start of February, for example, a study was published that had hugely significant findings for the field.

“There was a big announcement in Nature showing that if you eliminate a certain type of cell from mice, then they live quite a bit longer,” says de Grey. “Even if you do that elimination rather late; in other words when they’re already in middle age.”

For those following the field, this was exciting news, but for de Grey, it was concrete proof that ageing can be combated.

“That’s the kind of thing that I’ve been promoting for a long time, and it’s been coming but it’s been pretty tricky to actually demonstrate directly. This was really completely unequivocal proof of concept,” he says. “So of course it motivates lots of work to identify ways to do the same thing in human beings. These kinds of things are happening all the time now.” – Lucy Ingham


Tuesday 29th March 2016

Aubrey de Grey’s Predictions for Ending Ageing

Throughout his career, de Grey has been asked to make predictions as to when ageing research will mature to the extent where it can be used to significantly extend human lives. And so far, the answers he has given have not been fully matched by reality.

“If I look back at the kinds of predictions of timeframes that I’ve given in the past, it doesn’t look too good at first, because in the ten years that I’ve been making predictions, I would say that my predictions have only gone down by about three years,” he says.

However, there is a significant reason for this: money. And with growing investment and support, this is a problem that is starting to diminish.

“My predictions were always contingent on the availability of adequate funding, which certainly has not been forthcoming,” de Grey says. “And of course what we’re talking about here is that that is changing. It’s becoming more adequate every day, which means that we’re likely to be starting to catch up.”

As a result, de Grey is able to stick to previous claims about how long we’ll have to wait for ageing to be eliminated, instead of pushing the endgame further and further into the future.

“I think that I can still stick to the kinds of timeframes that I was saying in the past, which are basically that we’ve got maybe 20-25 years to wait before we really get all of this in place, even the really most difficult parts of it, to a point where we can really talk about having comprehensive medical control of ageing in humans,” he says.

“Of course even then it’s only a 50/50 guess; there’s at least a 10% chance that we’ll hit a whole bunch of problems that we don’t know about yet, and we won’t get there for 100 years. But a 50% chance is quite enough to be worth fighting for, so that’s not a problem.”

While there is a chance unforeseen issues could dramatically delay the research, there is also the possibility that a breakthrough could rapidly advance it, in the same way that induced pluripotent stem cells or the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system have done for other fields of biology.

“I’m hoping that we will make serendipitous discoveries that allow things to be done more easily,” he said. “This is the kind of thing that does happen in biology, after all.” – Lucy Ingham


Tuesday 29th March 2016

Incredible Things Are Happening

Each year is more exciting than the last in the research areas I’m involved in. AI, Robotics, Longevity, Biology… all over the place we’re just seeing new things happening year after year.

The number of breakthrough reports in longevity research in the last few months is incredible. This last year everyone is using CRISPR all of a sudden for gene editing. We see that you’re now able to make mice live much longer than they otherwise would have simply by making them flush out old senescent cells. There’s incredible things happening all around. – Ben Goertzel


Monday 23rd May 2016

Living Longer: Entering the Biotech Era

Genetics, which is now called biotechnology is beginning to revolutionize clinical practice and will completely transform medicine within one to two decades.

We’re starting to reprogram the outdated software of life—the 23,000 little programs we have in our bodies, called genes. We’re programming them away from disease and away from aging.

For instance, at the Joslin Diabetes Center, they turned off the fat insulin receptor gene that tells you to hold on to every calorie in your fat cells.

That was a good idea 10,000 years ago when our genes evolved, because the next hunting season might not work out so well. But today it underlies an epidemic of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. We’d like to turn that gene off. They tried it in animal experiments. The animals ate ravenously but remained slim. They didn’t get diabetes. They didn’t get heart disease. They also lived 20 percent longer. And that’s just one example of 23,000 genes.

We’re involved with a company where we add a gene to people who are missing a gene that causes a terminal disease called pulmonary hypertension, and the treatment has actually worked in human trials. We can subtract genes. We can modify stem cells to have desirable effects such as rejuvenating the heart if it’s been damaged in a heart attack, which is true of half of all heart attack survivors.

The point is health care is now an information technology subject to the same laws of acceleration and progress we see with other technologies.

We’ll soon have the ability to rejuvenate all the body’s tissues and organs and develop drugs targeted specifically at the underlying metabolic process of a disease rather than taking a hit-or-miss approach. – Ray Kurzweil


Monday 23rd May 2016

Making it to the Singularity

I’m doing well. So far so good. I wrote these books actually as a way of encouraging myself and shaming myself into taking good care of my health so I would be an exemplar of what I’m talking about. – Ray Kurzweil


Monday 23rd May 2016

If You Die Before the Singularity Arrives, Does That Mean You’ve Failed?

Yes. I regard death as the greatest tragedy. People talk about getting used to death and accepting it, but the end of each life is a terrible loss, like the Library of Alexandria burning down. All that information, all their skills, their personality, their memories are gone.

I think it’s humanity’s mission to transcend our limitations, and the most profound limitation we have is that of our life span. That’s the hardest thing for people to accept, because birth and life and death have been with us since the beginning of recorded history. But I can see a path that’s not far off where we can indefinitely extend our lives.

I believe we will reach a point around 2029 when medical technologies will add one additional year every year to your life expectancy. By that I don’t mean life expectancy based on your birthdate but rather your remaining life expectancy. – Ray Kurzweil


Friday 29th July 2016

Exploring Anti-Aging Strategies

The body is a complex machine.

Like any machine, it wears down over time during its normal course of operations.

This is a process of decay and accumulation of damage, so combating aging is simply a technical repair and maintenance problem.

There are various types of damage that the body does to itself as a side effect of the way the body works.

Damage is always happening, and right now there is only so much that we can do to minimize that rate, and there’s only so much accumulated damage that we can tolerate.

But our work revolves around repairing that ongoing damage. It’s just like a car. As carefully as we drive it and as diligently as we keep it oiled, sooner or later the engine will give out and it will stop running. But if a mechanic keeps replacing the broken parts, it can last forever.

Vintage cars were not designed to last more than ten or 15 years, but preventive maintenance, so long as it’s comprehensive, can completely transcend any such limits.

Aubrey de Grey, SENS Research Foundation



Our bodies are a bit like a house, we inhabit them, and if you don’t maintain the house it’s not going to last for very long, and if you do maintain the house it can last indefinitely.

There are some houses that are thousands of years old. The only difference between a house and this house I inhabit is we understand how a house works because we built it.

We don’t fully understand this house yet. But that understanding is increasing exponentially.

Ray Kurzweil


100,000 people die every day because the human body currently has insufficient methods of dealing with the cellular and molecular damage that accumulates over time.

Strategies are needed to intervene and repair this damage to keep the body maintained at a level below the threshold where problems start to occur.




Bridge 1 – What You Can Do Now to Live Long Enough to Get to Bridge 2

This stage involves using existing strategies to delay the buildup of damage in order to prolong your current life expectancy as much possible.

The most obvious options for achieving this are lifestyle approaches such as optimizing sleep, exercise, food, and stress levels.

Blue Zone research details lifestyle commonalities that communities with high life expectancies share. The top 5 places are:

  • Sardinia (Italy)
  • Okinawa (Japan)
  • Loma Linda (USA)
  • Nicoya Peninsula (Costa Rica)
  • Icaria (Greece)

Specific health and anti-aging supplements are also a possible option for slowing the damage that the process of aging wreaks on the body.

The effectiveness of these existing options are unfortunately dubious and speculative. A healthy lifestyle will certainly improve your quality of life but can’t work miracles in extending your life. It may win you anywhere from a few more years to a decade at most.

For example, compare the difference in life expectancy between Japan and the US. It’s only 4 years despite Japan being number 1 in the world and America being way down in 31st.

Loma Linda, California has the longest life expectancy in North America due to dietary and lifestyle habits. The vast majority of the population are Seventh-day Adventists. On average Adventist men live 7.3 years longer than other Californians.

An extra 4-7 years gained from a better lifestyle doesn’t sound like a lot, but it could be the difference between being around or not when the technology emerges that can buy you an extra 30 years.

Given the inadequacy of current methods to extend life dramatically, the whole point of Bridge 1 is just to live long enough to get to Bridge 2 in relatively good shape.


2020s / 2030s

Bridge 2: The Biotech Revolution

  • Ray Kurzweil’s Forecast: 2020’s
  • Aubrey de Grey’s Forecast: Mid 2020s

The next decade will be the most exciting in the history of biological sciences. – Craig Venter

This is the biotech era. In some ways it has already begun, think stem cells and CRISPR, but is not yet widely deployed. The biotech revolution is expected to bear fruit in the 2020s and 2030s.

As the biotech industry matures, we will have access to far more powerful methods than we currently do to reprogram our genes away from aging and disease.

A key turning point in the fight against aging is when cellular and molecular therapies have advanced to the stage that we can double or triple the lifespan of mice (at the moment we can manage 40%).

This is what Aubrey de Grey calls “Robust Mouse Rejuvenation” and he expects it to shake people out of their “pro-aging trance” as it will show without doubt that aging can be conquered.

He believes this will start an era of massive funding as people demand similar anti-aging treatments for humans.


2030s / 2040s

Life Extension Escape Velocity

  • Ray Kurzweil’s Forecast: 2029
  • Aubrey de Grey’s Forecast: Late 2030s / Early 2040s

This is when biotech (and ultimately nanotech) has matured to the extent that therapies and treatments are now good enough to maintain the damage accumulated in the body at a safe level indefinitely.

Ray Kurzweil describes this as when we have the means to extend your remaining life expectancy by an additional 1 year, every year that passes.

At this stage aging will be a solved problem.




One of the most aggressive approaches to surviving Bridge 1 is Ray Kurzweil’s supplement regime.

In 2012 Ray stated that he takes about 150 pills per day (which is 70-80 different things) as part of his quest to get to “Bridge 2”.

By 2015 he had managed to get this down to 100 pills per day by finding more bio-available forms.

This costs him a few thousand dollars per year, although he says it’s not necessary for everyone. “It’s not one size fits all. A healthy 30-year-old might just need basic supplements”.

Kurzweil has been accused of being “reckless” with his level of supplementation, which he refutes:

I monitor my body regularly. I’m not just flying without instrumentation. Being an engineer, I like data and I monitor 50 or 60 different blood levels every few months, and I’m constantly fine-tuning my program.

All of my blood levels are ideal. I scan my arteries to see if I have plaque buildup, and I have no atherosclerosis. I come out younger on biological aging tests.

So far, so good. But this program is not designed to last a very long time. This program is what we call bridge one. The goal is to get to bridge two: the biotechnology revolution, where we can reprogram biology away from disease.

Below is a list of some of the supplements Ray has previously mentioned taking:

For Anti-Oxidation and General Health

  • Comprehensive multi-vitamin
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Grapeseed extract
  • Resveratrol
  • Bilberry extract
  • Lycopene
  • Silymarin
  • Linoleic acid
  • Lecithin
  • N-acetyl-cysteine
  • Garlic
  • L-carnitine
  • Pyrodoxal-5-phosphate:
  • Echinacea
  • B12 shots


For LDL and HDL Levels

  • Policosanol
  • Gugulipid
  • Plant sterols
  • Niacin
  • Oat bran
  • Grapefruit powder
  • Psyllium
  • Lecithin
  • Lipitor


For Blood-Vessel Health

  • Arginine
  • TMG
  • Choline


To Lower Blood Viscosity

  • Aspirin
  • Lumbrokinase


To Reduce Inflammation

  • Curcumin


To Reduce Homocysteine Levels

  • Folic acid
  • B6


For Detoxification

  • EDTA
  • DMPS


For the Liver

  • Intravenous glutathione


For Cell Membranes

  • Intravenous phosphatidylcholine


For Testosterone Levels

  • PtC
  • DHEA
  • Testosterone
  • l-3-C
  • Chrysin
  • Nettle
  • Ginger


For the Prostate

  • Saw palmetto complex


For Stress

  • L-theanine
  • Beta-sitosterol
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • Green tea extract


For the Brain

  • GABA
  • Melatonin
  • Glycerylphosphatidylcholine
  • Nextrutine
  • Quercetin


For the Eyes

  • Lutein
  • Bilberry extract


For the Skin

  • Antioxidant skin creams


For Digestion

  • Betaine HCL
  • Pepsin
  • Gentian root
  • Peppermint
  • Acidophilus bifodobacter
  • Fructooligosaccharides
  • Fish proteins
  • L-glutamine
  • N-acetyl-d-glucosamine


To Inhibit Glycosylated End Products

  • N-acetyl-carnitine
  • Carnosine
  • Quercetin
  • Alpha lipoic acid

Lee Banfield, Exploring Anti-Aging Strategies



Unfortunately benefits from existing supplements are likely to be minimal, although some are intriguing enough to be worth proceeding with depending on a person’s current profile.

Gene and cell therapy are the big hopes. These exist today in nascent form but need to mature if we are to enjoy life extension of multiple decades rather than the few years that can be currently gained.

Some of the most ambitious and intriguing work for achieving this is being done by the SENS Research Foundation who have been awarded multi-million dollar donations from Peter Thiel and entrepreneur Michael Greve.

SENS also crowdfunds specific projects and accepts bitcoin. Keep up to date with the latest news and developments at






Vitamin D






Coenzyme Q10







Near – Medium Term


Nicotinamide Riboside (NAD+)



Medium – Long Term

Stem Cell Therapy

Gene Therapy

Lee Banfield, Exploring Anti-Aging Strategies



Thursday 18th August 2016

Major Diseases Are in Decline

Major diseases, like colon cancer, dementia and heart disease, are waning.

Of course, these diseases are far from gone. They still cause enormous suffering and kill millions each year. But it looks as if people in the United States and some other wealthy countries are, unexpectedly, starting to beat back the diseases of aging.

The leading killers are still the leading killers — cancer, heart disease, stroke — but they are occurringlater in life, and people in general are living longer in good health.

The colon cancer death rate has fallen by nearly 50 percent since its peak in the 1980s.

Dementia rates, too, have been plunging. It took a few reports and more than a decade before many people believed it, but data from the United States and Europe are becoming hard to wave off. The latest report finds a 20 percent decline in dementia incidence per decade, starting in 1977.

A recent American study, for example, reports that the incidence among people over age 60 was 3.6 per 100 in the years 1986-1991, but in the years 2004-2008 it had fallen to 2.0 per 100 over age 60. With more older people in the population every year, there may be more cases in total, but an individual’s chance of getting dementia has gotten lower and lower.

The exemplar for declining rates is heart disease.

By 1960, a third of all American deaths were from heart disease. Now, cardiologists are predicting it will soon fall from its perch as the No. 1 killer of Americans, replaced by cancer, which itself has a falling death rate.

The heart disease death rate has been falling for so long — more than half a century — that it’s no longer news. The news now is that the rate of decline seems to have slowed recently, although it is still falling. While heart disease is still the leading cause of death in the United States, killing more than 600,000 people a year, deaths have fallen 70 percent from their peak.

Until the late 1930s, stomach cancer was the No. 1 cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Now just 1.8 percent of American cancer deaths are the result of it. – Gina Kolata



Friday 30th September 2016

Anti-Aging Research is Becoming Mainstream

The mission to end aging got a significant boost with the publication of an extensive strategy to take aging-targeted drugs to clinical trials.

The strategy, which is laid out over six manuscripts, was published by the Geroscience Network, an organisation funded by the US’ National Institutes of Health whose members include the Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins University, Stanford University and Harvard University.

The publication is highly significant, because it demonstrates that the notion of aging as a treatable disease has moved from a fringe theory held only by a small percentage of researchers to a widely accepted notion being used as the basis for widespread research strategies.

“Recent research suggests that aging may actually be a modifiable risk factor,” explains Dr James Kirkland, director of the Mayo Clinic Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging and study lead author on two of the manuscripts.

“The goal of our network’s collaborative efforts is to accelerate the pace of discovery in developing interventions to delay, prevent or treat these conditions as a group, instead of one at a time.” – Lucy Ingham


Wednesday 30th November 2016

I’m reasonably confident that my kids who are in their 20s are not going to have to die. I’m 49 years old and I’m hoping I can make it, because I think we’re decades away from beating death, not centuries. – Ben Goertzel


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